Yield, Place Under
5292 HUPOTAGE (4): hupo = under + tage (noun form of tasso) = arrangement; an arrangement under. A person's voluntary placement of himself under someone or under the "good news" of Jesus. See discussion below, under 5293 hupotasso.
A YIELDING TO ANOTHER PERSON: 1Ti.3.4: an overseer should have the quality of "leading [his] own household well; having respectful, yielding (hupotage) children." Also, 1Ti.2.11: "Let a woman learn in calmness, yielding in all."
A YIELDING TO THE GOOD NEWS OF JESUS: For example, Gal.2.5: "...to whom we did not give way for an hour by yielding (hupotage); so that the truth of the good news might continue with you." 2Th.1.8 shows that the yielding is voluntary, but that there are consequences, depending upon whether or not a person decides to yield (obey). Opposite: "unyielding" (0506 anupotaktos).
5293 HUPOTASSO (38): hupo = under + tasso = to arrange; to arrange under. Hupotasso is usually translated "be subject" or "submit." But "be subject" implies involuntary action, and "submit" does not include the idea of mutual persuasion, as in Eph.5.21. In the FCM (NT) hupotasso never means mandatory submission by any being. For example, Jesus voluntarily gave up his existence in the form of God and his equality to God. He lived voluntarily in a human body sinlessly, becoming a sinless sacrifice for sinful humans (Php.2.6-8). He voluntarily chose not to call upon thousands of angels to protect or rescue him from abuse and death by human hands (Mt.26.53). Similarly, neither God nor Jesus place mandatory behavior requirements upon humans. Not until after their physical life is over do humans undergo final judgement: "...it is reserved to humans to die once, and after this, judgement" (Heb.9.27).
Hupotasso is used in two primary senses in the FCM (NT):
FOR GOD TO SUBJECT OR PLACE ALL THINGS UNDER JESUS: For example, Heb.2.8: "You (God) have placed (hupoat\sso) all things underneath his (Jesus') feet. For in placing all things under (hupotasso) him, he left nothing that was not placed under him." Eph.1.22 begins with the same statement, but also restates it in terms of "headship:" "...and (God) has placed all things under (hupotasso) his (Jesus') feet, and gave him headship over all things to the ekklesia which is his body." (This confirms Jesus' claim in Mt.28.28: "All authority was given to me in heaven and on earth.") Please notice that God andJesus speak of "arranging all things under," not dominating humans. God desires humans to seek him and serve him of their own free will.
In Rom.8.20 Paul apparently referred to God's creation, humans, prior to the time when God "placed all things under Jesus' feet": "For the creation was not subjected (hupotasso) to futility by [God's] will, but to hope, because of the one subjecting." The idea seems to be that human life would be futile if Jesus had not voluntarily given his life on the cross, so that humans could be forgiven of sins and have a hope of eternal life.
FOR JESUS TO PLACE ALL THINGS UNDER HIMSELF: For example, Php.3.20-21: "...we await a Rescuer, Master Jesus the Anointed One, who will change the body of our humiliation, conforming it to his magnificent body by means of his power, even to place all things under (hupotasso) himself."
FOR JESUS TO BE BACK UNDER GOD, AFTER ALL THINGS HAD BEEN UNDER HIM: 1Co.15.28: "But when all things are placed under him (hupotasso), then the Son himself will also be placed under (hupotasso) the [one] having placed all things under (hupotasso) him, so that the Godhead may be all things in all."
FOR A HUMAN TO VOLUNTARILY YIELD TO OTHERS: That hupotasso is a voluntary action can be seen in Eph.5.21-22: "...yielding (hupotasso) to one another in awesome respect of the Anointed one; the wives to their own husbands as to the Master..." The idea is the same in Eph.5.5: "Likewise, younger [ones] yield to older [ones], and all to one another."
If the "one another" were a king and one of his subjects, one could easily visualize a "subject" subjecting himself to his king. But could a human king "be subject" or "submit" to a social inferior without giving up his kingship? King Jesus humbly yielded himself to Pilate, and Governor Pilate could have yielded to Jesus' teachings, had he so chosen. But Pilate could not subject himself to Jesus without giving up his authority as governor. Accordingly, hupotasso must be translated by a word such as "yield," rather than "subject."
The usage of hupotasso is somewhat different in 1Co.14.32: "...spirits of spokespersons (prophets) yield to spokespersons." That is, although the Pure (Holy) Spirit may guide the utterances of prophets, they still control their own speaking and writing.
To yield to God, Jesus, rulers and authorities, parents, husband, slave masters, one another, or younger to older:
To yield to God's law and human ordinances:
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