3144 MARTUR, MARTUS (35): a witness. In the FCM (NT) a martur is a person who can testify as to what he has seen, heard or otherwise experienced. The English word "martyr" (a transliteration of the Greek word martur) means a person who dies for trusting in God or Jesus, or for a "cause." But this differs greatly from the FCM Greek meaning of martur, "a witness."
For example, Act.22.14-15: "And he (Ananias speaking to Paul) said, 'The God of our fathers previously designated you to know his desires and to see the Upright One and to hear a voice out of his mouth, because you will be a witness (martur) of him to all people of the things which you have observed and heard.'" Note the meaning of "martur": "witness of...the things which you have observed and heard." Paul spoke about talking with Jesus in Act.26.15-16: "...and I (Paul) said, who are you, Master? And the Master said, 'I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. But rise up and stand on your feet; for I appeared to you to appoint you an attendant and a witness (martur) of the things which you both saw and of the things which I will make seen to you.'"
Martur means "witness" (not martyr) in Act.22.19-20: "And I (Paul speaking to Jesus) said, 'Master they understand that throughout the synagogues I was imprisoning and beating those who were trusting in you; and when the blood of your witness (martur) Stephen was being shed, I myself was even standing by and consenting and keeping the coats of those who were killing him.'" Stephen was murdered because he condemned the members of the Jewish Sanhedrin (council), Act.7.51-53. As he was dying, Stephen saw God's magnificence and was a witness (martur) of Jesus standing at God's right side (Act.7.55-60).
The usage of martur in God's FCM (NT) is identical to that used in a court of law; that is, a person may testify only to what he has experienced with his five senses. For example, Act.10.37-39: "...You+ know that which happened throughout all of Judea, beginning from Galilee, after the immersion which John proclaimed; how God anointed Jesus, the one from Nazareth, with pure spirit and power; who went about doing good and healing all of those who were being oppressed by the devil, because God was with him. And we are his witnesses (martur) of things which he did both in the country of the Jews and Jerusalem; whom they indeed killed, hanging him on a tree." A person living now cannot be a "witness of Jesus" since he did not physically observe him. But he certainly can testify to what he has read in God's message about Jesus.
Paul calls upon God as his witness in Rom.1.9, Php.1.8, 2Co.1.23, 1Th.2.5 and 10. (Paul evidently recognized that God witnesses what a human does.)
3140 MARTUREO, MARTUREOMAI (78): to testify as to what one has witnessed (martur). In Jn.3.11 Jesus said, "Truly, truly I tell you, what we know we speak and we what we have observed we testify (martureo), and you do not accept our testimony (marturia)." This statement is a general truth: A human may SPEAK what he knows to be true, but he can only TESTIFY as to what he hasmseen or otherwise experienced through his own five senses.
In another example, Jn.3.31-32, John (the immerser) said, "The one coming from above (i.e., Jesus) is over everything; the one who is from the earth is part of the earth and speaks of the earth. The one coming from heaven is over everything; what he has watched and hea no one accepts his testimony (marturia)."
But some folks who claim to "witness" do not testify about what they have experienced with their five senses but instead "testify" of things they have not experienced. A person may rightly believe that Jesus was resurrected and can testify what the scripture reveals about that event; but only those who personally saw Jesus resurrected are qualified to testify that he was raised from the dead. Comp.: "testify upon" (1957 epimartureo), "testify with" (4828 summartureo), "testify against" (2649 katamartureo), "testify falsely" (5576 pseudomartureo) and "testify together" (4901 sunepimartureo).
FOR GOD, JESUS, THE HOLY SPIRIT OR AN ANGEL OF GOD TO TESTIFY: Since spiritual beings are not in physical bodies, they evidently are not limited to five senses and thus testify using whatever means they have to witness.
God testified in Jn.5.37: "..And the Father having sent me, that one has testified (martureo) concerning me." For example, in Mk.1.11 God said, "You are my precious Son; I am delighted in you."
Jesus testified in Jn.8.14: "Jesus answered and said to them, 'Even if I testify (martureo) concerning myself, my testimony (marturia) is true, because I know from where I came and to where I go; but you+ (i.e., certain Pharisees) do not know from where I came or to where I go.'" That is, Jesus knew his personal experiences; anyone not present could not testify thereto.
The Pure Spirit was going to testify (Jn.15.26): "When the Helper comes whom I will send to you+ from the Father, the Spirit of Truth who comes out from the Father, that one will testify (martureo) concerning me."
In Rev.22.16 an angel testified: "I, Jesus, sent my angel to testify (martureo) these things to you+ in the communities (ekklesia)."
FOR THE SCRIPTURES TO TESTIFY; as in Jn.5.39: "You+ are searching the Writings, because you+ assume that in them you+ have eternal life; yet, these are the ones testifying (martureo) about me."
FOR INSPIRITED HUMANS TO TESTIFY concerning what they experienced, learned from the scriptures, miraculously remembered (Jn.14.26), were taught by inspiration (Jn.14.26) or were guided into by the Holy Spirit (Jn.16.13): For example, Rev.1.1-2: "A revelation of Jesus the Anointed One, which God gave to him, to show to his self-enslaved ones the things which must happen with speed, and he signified it, sending it through his self-enslaved one, John, who attested (martureo) to God's message and the testimony (marturia) of Jesus to as many things as he saw."
FOR UNINSPIRITED HUMANS TO TESTIFY of what they experienced; as in Jn.3.28: "You+ yourselves testify of me (John the immerser) that I said, 'I am not the Anointed One.'"
FOR ONE'S WORKS TO TESTIFY (BY METONYMY); as in Jn.5.36: "But I have greater testimony (marturia) than that of John; for the works which the Father has given me that I might finish them, the works themselves testify (martureo) concerning me that my Father has sent me.'"
3141 MARTURIA (37): that which has been experienced (witnessed) through human senses and is offered as verbal or written evidence (testimony), as in Jn.19.35: "And the one having observed it has testified (martureo), and his testimony (marturia) is true, and that one knows that he speaks truly, that you+ also may trust." Note the superiority of God's testimony, 1Jn.5.9-10: "If we receive the testimony (marturia) of humans, the testimony (marturia) of God is greater; for this is the testimony (marturia) of God that he has testified (martureo) concerning his Son. The one trusting in the Son of God has the testimony (marturia) in him. The one not trusting God has made him a liar, because he has not trusted in the testimony (marturia) which God has testified (martureo) concerning his Son."
3142 MARTURION (20): testimony; verbal or physical testimony provided to, for or against someone.
VERBAL TESTIMONY PRESENTED AS EVIDENCE: for example, 1Co.2.1: "And coming to you+ brothers, I came not according to excellence of speech of wisdom, announcing God's testimony (marturion) to you."
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE PRESENTED AS TESTIMONY; as in Mt.8.3-4: "...and immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus said to him, 'See that you tell no one, but go show yourself to the priest and offer the gift which Moses commanded, for evidence (marturion) to them." Similarly, Mk.13.9: "...they will deliver you to councils and in synagogues you will be beaten and you will stand before governors and kings for my sake, for evidence (marturion) against them."
3143 MARTUROMAI (3): to testify to God's truth in a matter, as in Act.20.26: "... I testify (marturomai) to you+ on this day that I am clean from the blood of everyone, for I kept back nothing to announce all of God's advice to you+." Comp. "testify" (3140 martureo), "solemnly testify" (1263 diamarturomai) and "testify beforetime" (4303 promarturomai).
---- MARTUS: See martur.
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