4154 PNEO (7): to blow. In God's FCM (NT) pneo is associated with "wind" (0417 anemos) or contexts involving air movement, except in Jn.3.8, where it refers to the movement of the Pure Spirit. See the sixth paragraph of the next word-study, "spirit" (4151 pneuma), for discussion.

BLOW Mt.7.25,27. Lk.12.55. Jn.6.18. Act.27.40. Rev.7.1.
FLOW Jn.3.8.

4151 PNEUMA (376): spirit. In Lk.24.39 Jesus stated, "a pneuma does not have flesh and bones, as you+ observe me having." Thus Jesus defined "pneuma" as a living being without a body. Jas.2.26, referring to humans: "...the body without the pneuma is dead." (James did NOT write that the pneuma was dead.) In God's FCM (NT), pneuma usually represents a living, non-physical being or a non-physical part of a human.

"Pneuma," is a non-physical entity called "spirit;" (sometimes called a "sensory being" or "soul"). See "soul" (5590 psuche) for discussion. When the Pure (0040 hagios) Spirit directed the writing of God's message, he caused the word pneuma to be used to describe a "non-physical" being. A pneuma (spirit) cannnot be detected by the human five senses. Yet its presence in a living human is usually obvious.

Someone will say, "Pneuma should be translated "breath" because that is its literal meaning." But "breath" is a physical material, air, used by living humans to sustain life. Now the human spirit is not physical and does not breathe physical air. So "breath" is unrelated to pneuma in the FCM and is unsuitable to translate it.

Someone else may recommend use of the word "ghost" to translate pneuma, as in the King James Translation. But "ghost" is an archaic word meaning a specter or apparition, often evil, and thus is unsuitable.

The word "zoe" is used to describe "life" in the FCM. When it refers to a living human zoe comprises the total of body, soul and spirit (pneuma). But pneuma is only one part of a living human and never means "life."

Pneuma may have meant "breath" in ancient Greek writings, but it didn't mean "wind," as it is usually translated in Jn.3.8. The word "wind" (0417 anemos) does not occur in Jn.3.8. It occurs thirty-one times in the FCM and is always translated "wind." In the FCM pneuma always means "spirit." In Jn.3.8 pneuma relates to a living being, the Pure Spirit: "The Spirit (pneuma) flows where he wants, and you are hearing his voice; but you are unaware of from where he comes and to where he is going." Comp. "to breathe" (1709 empneo), "to inspirit" (1720 emphusao) and "God-inspirited" (2315 theopneustos).

Note that pneuma is always in the neuter gender in the FCM, whether it refers to God, the Pure Spirit, the human spirit or any other kind of spirit.

"Pneuma" is one of several Greek nouns (nomos, "law," is another) whose use of a definite article in Greek corresponds identically to English usage. When it is present in the Greek text it should also be included in the English translation. If omitted in the Greek text it should be omitted in English. The presence of an article, adjective or other modifier with the word pneuma in the FCM shows that it refers to a living being or is used figuratively.

USE OF THE WORD PNEUMA IN THE SEPTUAGINT TRANSLATION: In God's AM (OT) the Hebrew word ruwach (spirit) is usually translated into the Greek Septuagint as pneuma. The meaning of ruwach (pneuma) in the AM is broader in scope than is pneuma in the FCM in that ruwach can mean either breath or spirit, depending upon the context. Also, ruwach is sometimes used figuratively, as in Isa.11.2: "...and the spirit (ruwach) of Yahweh will rest on him, the spirit (ruwach) of wisdom and understanding, the spirit (ruwach) of counsel and strength, the spirit (ruwach) of knowledge, and the awesome respect of Yahweh;" similarly in Num.5.14: "the spirit (ruwach) of jealousy."


1) God.

2) one part of a human,

3) a spirit outside of its body,

4) God's messengers (angels),

5) unclean or evil spirits, and,

6) pneuma used figuratively.

1) PNEUMA IN REFERENCE TO GOD: In Jn.4.24: "God [is] spirit (pneuma), and those who are showing submission must show submission in spirit (pneuma) and truth. Note: God does not HAVE spirit, God IS (a) spirit. This concept of God being "spirit" also occurs in Eph.2.22: "...in whom you+ also are built up together into God's residence in spirit." (All other occurences of pneuma in connection with "God" or "Jesus" refer to the Pure Spirit and are discussed in Part II below.)

SPIRIT (2) Jn.4.24a. Eph.2.22.

2) PNEUMA REFERRING TO THE SPIRIT OF A HUMAN (including Jesus while in the flesh): "To pneuma" with the definite article or other modifier as in Rom.1.9: "For God is my witness, to whom I do [godly] service in my spirit (pneuma) in the good news of his Son..." Also Rom.8.16: "The Spirit (pneuma) himself testifies with our spirit (pneuma) that we are children of God."

SPIRIT (51) Mt.5.3; 26.41; 27.50. Mk.2.8; 8.12; 14.38. Lk.1.47; 8.55; 23.46. Jn.11.33; 13.21; 19.30. Act.7.59; 17.16; 19.21. Rom.1.9; 8.10, 16b; 12.11. 1Co.2.11a; 5.3,4,5; 12.10,13; 14.14,32; 15.45; 16.18. 2Co.2.13; 7.13; 11.4. Gal.5.17,17; 6.8a,18. Eph.4.23. Col.2.5. 1Th.5.23. 2Ti.4.22. Phm.25. Heb.4.12; 12.9,23. Jas.2.26. 1Pe.3.19. 1Jn.4.1,1,2b,3. Rev.11.11.

A PERSON HAVING A GOOD KIND OF SPIRIT: This apparently is the same as having "pure spirit." (See Part II, paragraph 2 concerning "pure spirit.")

a) Jn.3.6: "The thing born of the flesh is flesh, and the thing born of the Spirit is spirit." That is, flesh gives birth to flesh and the Spirit gives birth to spirit. This suggests that the "gift of the Spirit" in Act.2.38 includes the rebirth and purification of one's spirit.

b) Rom.8.5 seems to show the result of this new birth: "For those who are acting according to flesh think about things of the flesh, but those [who are acting] according to spirit [are thinking about] the things of the Spirit."

c) 1Co.6.16-17: "...don't you+ know that [one] joined to a harlot is one body [with her]?...but the the one joined to the Master is one spirit [with him]."

d) 1Pe 3.18: "For [the] Anointed One indeed died once for all [time] concerning wrongdoing, an upright one to benefit wrongful [ones], so that he could bring you+ to God; the concept of being put to death in flesh, in contrast to being made alive in spirit..."

SPIRIT (52) Mt.22.43. Lk.1.17,80. Jn.3.5,6b; 4.23,24b; 7.39b. Act.6.3, 10; 8.18; 18.25. Rom.2.29; 7.6; 8.4,5a,9,13; 15.19. 1Co.2.4; 4.21; 6.17; 7.34; 14.2,12,15,15,16. 2Co.4.13; 12.18. Gal.3.3; 4.29; 5.5,16, 18,25,25; 6.1. Eph.3.5; 5.18; 6.18. Php.1.27; 2.1. Col.1.8. 2Th.2.13. 1Ti.3.16. Heb.9.14. Jas.4.5. 1Pe.1.2; 3.4,18; 4.6.

A BAD KIND OF SPIRIT INFLUENCING A HUMAN; See also paragraph 5 below.

a) In 2Co.7.1 Paul says this to all who trust God: "...precious ones, let us cleanse ourselves from all pollution of flesh and spirit...".

b) In Eph.2.1-2: "You who were dead in your+ offenses and wrongdoings, in which you+ then walked according to this age of the human world, according to the important one, the authority of the air, the spirit (pneuma) which is now operating in the unpersuaded sons."

c) In 2Th.2.2: "...[that] you+ not be quickly shaken in your mind nor be disturbed, neither through a spirit (pneuma) nor through speech nor through a letter as [if] through us, [stating] that the day of the Master is present."

d) In 1Ti.4.1: "Now the Spirit says in words that in later times some will depart from the trust, giving attention to misleading spirits and teachings of demons,"

e) In Jud.19: "These are those who separate themselves; natural ones, not having a [purifed] spirit."

SPIRIT (5) 2Co.7.1. 2Th.2.2. Eph.2.2. 1Ti.4.1b. Jud.19.

3) PNEUMA REFERRING TO A SPIRIT OUTSIDE OF ITS BODY; or considered separately from its body: A person without flesh and bones; usually a human without a material body, (as defined by Jesus in Lk.24.39 and Jn.6.63a) or a living human who is outside of his physical body. An example of the latter is John's statement in Rev.1.10: "I came to be in spirit on the Master's day."

SPIRIT (10) Lk.24.37,39. Jn.6.63a. Act.23.8,9. Rev.1.10; 4.2; 13.15; 17.3; 21.10.

4) PNEUMA, REFERRING TO GOD'S MESSENGERS (ANGELS); as in Heb.1.14: "Are they (messengers) not all attending spirits being sent out for service because of the ones about to inherit [their] rescue. See "messenger" (0032 angelos). SPIRIT (6) Heb.1.7,14. Rev.1.4; 3.1; 4.5; 5.6.

5) PNEUMA, REFERRING TO DEMONS (UNCLEAN, EVIL SPIRIT BEINGS): See "demon" (1140 daimonion) for discussion of "evil spirits".

SPIRIT (40) Mt.8.16; 10.1; 12.43,45. Mk.1.23,26,27; 3.11,30; 5.2,8,13; 6.7; 7.25; 9.17,20,25,25. Lk.4.33,36; 6.18; 7.21; 8.2,29; 9.39,42; 10.20; 11.24,26. Act.5.16; 8.7; 16.16,18; 19.12,13,15,16. Rev.16.13, 14; 18.2.

6) PNEUMA USED FIGURATIVELY (with or without the article); that is, the spirit of something other than a being:

a) "a spirit of infirmity" (Lk.13.11).

b) "The words which I (Jesus) have spoken to you are spirit and are life" (Jn.6.63b).

c) "a spirit of purity" (Rom.1.4).

d) "the law of the spirit of life in [the] Anointed One" (Rom.8.2).

e) "a spirit of slavery" versus "a spirit of adoption" (Rom.8.15).

f) "a spirit of drowsiness." (Rom.11.8).

g) "the spirit of the world" (1Co.2.12a).

h) "...a new agreement, not of letter but of spirit" (2Co.3.6).

i) "a spirit of wisdom" (Eph.1.17).

j) "whom...Jesus will destroy with the spirit of his mouth" (2Th.2.8).

k) "a spirit of cowardice" (2Ti.1.7).

l) "the spirit of truth and the spirit of error" (1Jn.4.6).

m) "the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Rev.19.10).

SPIRIT (15) Lk.13.22. Jn.6.63b. Rom.1.4; 8.2,15,15; 11.8. 1Co.2.12a. 2Co.3.6. Eph.1.17. 2Th.2.8. 2Ti.1.7. 1Jn.4.6,6. Rev.19.10.


This expression has traditionally been translated as "the Holy Spirit" or simply "holy spirit" depending upon the translators' opinions on whether it referred to a person, the Pure (Holy) Spirit. They did not realize that the usage (or not) of the Greek definite article with "pneuma" clearly shows to which usage the text refers:

1) When a definite article is used wih hagios pneuma it always refers to the person called "the Pure Spirit," or

2) When no definite article or other modifier is used with hagios pneuma it always refers in some way to a characteristic of "pure spirit" in a human.

1)HAGIOS PNEUMA REFERRING TO THE PURE SPIRIT: The Pure Spirit is described in three ways in the FCM:

a) as God's or Jesus' emissary,

b) as "the Pure Spirit," or

c) as "the Spirit."

This can be seen in the FCM record of events at Jesus' immersion, in which the Pure Spirit is described in all three ways. Jesus is called:

a) "theou pneuma" (God's Spirit) in Mt.3.16,

b) "to hagios pneuma" (the Pure Spirit) in Lk.3.22, and

c) "to pneuma" (the Spirit) in Mk.1.10,12 and Jn.1.32,33.

Likewise, in Matthew's discussion of "contemptuous speech" (blasphemy) in Mt.12.28-31, the Pure Spirit is again described in all three ways:

a) "theou pneuma" (God's Spirit) in verse 28.

b) "to hagios pneuma" (the Pure Spirit) in verse 32.

c) "to pneuma" (the Spirit) in verse 31.


"theou pneuma" (God's Spirit) in Mt.3.16, 12.18,28, Act.2.17,18, Rom.8.9b,11a,14, 1Co.2.11b,12b,14, 3.16, 6.11, 7.40, 12.3a, 2Co.3.3, Eph.3.16, Php.3.3, 1Pe.4.14, 1Jn.4.2,13.

"patrqs pneuma" (the Father's Spirit) in Mt.10.20.

"kuriou pneuma" (the Master's Spirit) in Lk.4.18?, Act.5.9, 8.39, 2Co.3.18.

"Iesou pneuma" (Jesus' Spirit), Act.16.7, Rom.8.11b.

"Christou pneuma" (the Anointed One's Spirit), Rom.8.9c, 1Pe.1.11.

"huiou pneuma" (the Son's Spirit) Gal.4.6.

"Ifsou Christou pneuma (Jesus the Anointed One's Spirit). Php.1.19.

SPIRIT (32) Mt.3.16; 10.20; 12.18,28. Lk.4.18. Act.2.17,18; 5.9; 8.39; 16.7. Rom.8.9b,9c,11a,11b,14. 1Co.2.11b,12b,14; 3.16; 6.11; 7.40; 12.3a. 2Co.3.3,18. Gal.4.6. Eph.3.16. Php.1.19; 3.3. 1Pe.1.11; 4.14. 1Jn.4.2,13.

b) THE PURE SPIRIT IS CALLED "TO HAGIOS PNEUMA" OR "TO PNEUMA TO HAGIOS:" The presence of the definite article shows that reference is to a specific person, "the Pure Spirit."

SPIRIT (42) Mt.12.32; 28.19. Mk.3.29; 12.36; 13.11. Lk.2.26; 3.22; 10.21; 12.10,12. Jn.14.26. Act.1.8,16; 2.33,38; 4.31; 5.3,32; 7.51; 9.31; 10.44,45,47; 11.15; 13.2,4; 15.8,28; 16.6; 19.6; 20.23,28; 21.11; 28.25. 1Co.6.19. 2Co.13.13. Eph.1.13; 4.30. 1Th.4.8. Heb.3.7; 9.8; 10.15.

c) THE PURE SPIRIT CALLED "TO PNEUMA (THE SPIRIT): the presence of the definite article and the context show that this refers to the Pure Spirit. "To pneuma" is modified by the word "one" (hen) instead of an article in Eph.2.18 and 4.3b. (Passages which refer to "the spirit" of a human and are discussed in Part I, paragraph 2).

SPIRIT (74) Mt.4.1; 12.31. Mk.1.10,12. Lk.2.27; 4.1b,14. Jn.1.32,33a; 3.6a,8,8,34; 7.39a; 14.17; 15.26; 16.13. Act.2.4b; 8.29; 10.19; 11.12, 28; 20.22 21.4. Rom.8.5b,6,16,23,26,26,27; 15.30. 1Co.2.10,10; 12.4,7, 8,8,9,9,11,13,13. 2Co.1.22; 3.6b,8,17,17; 5.5. Gal.3.2,5,14; 5.22; 6.8b. Eph.2.18; 4.3,3; 6.17. 1Th.5.19. 1Ti.4.1a. Heb.10.29. 1Jn.3.24; 5.6,6,8. Rev.2.7,11,17,29; 3.6,13,22; 14.13; 22.17.

2) HAGIOS PNEUMA REFERRING TO PURE SPIRIT (NOT CAPITALIZED): When "hagios pneuma occurs without the definite article or other modifier, it always refers to something pure given to and received by a human." (Dr. Marshall, author of the Nestle-Marshall Interlinear New Testament, often omits the definite article in his English translation when it is not in the Greek text; but he admittedly does capitalize "Pure Spirit" in each of the "hagios pneuma passages in this category, even when he does not gratuitously add the definite article.)

To pneuma (the [Pure] Spirit) occurs in context with hagios pneuma (pure spirit), in Jn.1.32-33: "And John (the immerser) testified saying, 'I observed the Spirit coming down out of heaven as a dove, and it stayed on him (Jesus); and I did not recognize him. But the [one] having sent me to immerse in water, that one said to me, "On whomever you see the Spirit coming down and staying on him, this one is immersing in pure spirit."'" Since the [Pure] Spirit STAYED on Jesus he is not the one immersing. Nor is Jesus immersing in THE Pure Spirit; Jesus is immersing in "pure spirit." Matthew, Mark and Luke record this same event similarly, stating: "...he (Jesus) will immerse you+ in pure spirit."

"To hagios pneuma" (the Pure Spirit) also occurs in context with "hagios pneuma" (pure spirit) in Act.11.15-16: "And as I began to speak, the Pure Spirit fell on them (Cornelius and his household) as also on us (Peter and the other learners) at the beginning (Pentecost). And I remembered the word of the Master, how he said (Act.1.5), 'John indeed immersed in water, but you+ will be immersed in pure spirit after not many days.'"

After their immersion in pure spirit, Cornelius and his household were immersed in water, as described in Act.10.47-48.

"To pneuma also occurs in context with "hagios pneuma" in Act.8.14-19: "...they sent unto them Peter and John; who, going down prayed concerning them so that they might receive pure spirit; for he (the Pure Spirit) had not yet fallen on any one of them, but only they were immersed in the name of the Master, Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received pure spirit. And Simon, seeing that the Spirit was given through the laying on of the hands of the apostles, offered them money saying: 'Give me also this authority that on whomever I lay my hands he may receive pure spirit.'"

Note that when "the Pure Spirit" was given or the Pure Spirit fell on believers, "pure spirit" is what they received.

The expression "baptizon en pneumati hagio" (immersing in pure spirit) also occurs in Mt.3.11, Mk.1.8 and Lk.3.16. Most English translations render this, "baptism in the Holy Spirit," adding the definite article even though it is not present in the Greek. Jesus immersed in pure spirit in Mt.3.11, Mk.1.8, Lk.3.16 and Jn.1.33. The Pure Spirit did the immersing everywhere else.

In Act.2.37-38 the phrase "receive the gift of the Pure Spirit" occurs: "And hearing [this], they were stung [in] the heart, and said to Peter and the other delegates, "What should we do, brothers?' And Peter [said] to them, 'change your+ hearts (repent), and let each of you+ be immersed in the name of Jesus the Anointed One unto forgiveness of your+ wrongdoings, and you+ will receive the gift of the Pure Spirit."

The idea seems to be that those who trust in the good news about Jesus will change their hearts (repent). They will trust God instead of self, and will be immersed unto the forgiveness of their wrongdoings (sins), their spirits thereby being purified. Then these trusting ones who then have purified spirits receive the gift of the Pure Spirit. The "gift of the Pure Spirit" is equivalent to "being fallen on by the Pure Spirit;" and the effect on believers is "being immersed in pure spirit" and "receiving pure spirit."

Note that receiving "pure spirit" is not "forgiveness of wrongdoings." Nor is "pure spirit" the inspired Message (Word) of God. It is that "gift of the Pure Spirit" which was promised in Act.2.38 and was received in Act.8.17 and 11.15.

Since the Pure Spirit, a non-physical being, cannot be experienced by humans through their five senses, a believer cannot know whether he indwells him literally or whether he indwells him by influencing him through external means. (Does it really matter which way?) One who trusts God can "test the spirits" by comparing the actions of others to God's message, and can thus distinguish between "nudges" by the Pure Spirit and other "nudges."

Three times hagios pneuma refers to Mary becoming pregnant with Jesus:

a) Mt.1.18-20: "Now the birth of Jesus the Anointed One was thus: His mother, Mary, being promised in marriage to Joseph, was found to be pregnant of pure spirit (hagios pneuma) before they came together. Now her husband Joseph, being upright and not wanting to expose her, intended to dismiss her privately. But [as] he was scheming about these things, Look! A messenger of [the] Master appeared to him by means of a dreamed vision, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take up Mary as your wife; for [that] conceived in her is of pure spirit (hagios pneuma).'"

b) Lk.1.35: "And answering, the messenger said to her: 'Pure spirit (h\gios pneuma) will come upon you, and power of [the] Most High will over-shadow you; wherefore also that being born will be called Pure, Son of God.'"

Mary's "pure spirit" refers to her being "pure" and "of spirit;" that is, she was "pure," a virgin, dedicated in "spirit" to God, who superhumanly caused her to become pregnant with Jesus.


a) 1Co.12.3b and 1Th.1.5 and 6 show that "pure spirit" is a quality possessed by spiritually minded humans.

b) In Rom.9.1 one's conscience testifies with his "pure spirit" as to whether or not he is telling truth; that is, there are TWO internal factors letting a believer know when he is telling truth.

c) In 2Co.6.6 "a pure spirit" is listed among good personal qualities.

d) In Tit.3.5: "...not by upright works which we did, but according to his mercy he rescued us through washing of regeneration and renewal of pure spirit." Note, one's OWN "pure spirit" is regenerated/renewed, not that of the Pure Spirit.

e) "Pure spirit" includes "...uprightness, peace and joy in Rom.14.17 and 15.13.

f) Pure spirit is something given at different times for different purposes in Mt.3.11, Lk.1.15,35,41,67, 2.25, 4.1, 11.13, Jn.20.22, etc.

SPIRIT (47) Mt.1.18,20; 3.11. Mk.1.8. Lk.1.15,35,41,67; 2.25; 3.16; 4.1a; 11.13. Jn.1.33b; 20.22. Act.1.2,5; 2.4a; 4.8; 6.5; 7.55; 8.15, 17,19; 9.17; 10.38; 11.16,24; 13.9,52; 19.2,2. Rom.5.5; 9.1; 14.17; 15.13,16. 1Co.12.3b. 2Co.6.6. 1Th.1.5,6. 2Ti.1.14. Tit.3.5. Heb.2.4; 6.4. 1Pe.1.12. 2Pe.1.21. Jud.20.

4152 PNEUMATIKOS (26): (adj.) Pertaining to the spiritual realm; For example, Rom.1.11: "For I deeply yearn to see you+, so that I may share some spiritual (pneumatikos) gift of favor (5486 charisma) to firmly stabilize you+."

SPIRITUAL (16) Rom.1.11; 7.14. 1Co.10.3,4,4; 15.44,44,46,46. Eph.1.3; 5.19; 6.12. Col.1.9; 3.16. 1Pe.2.5,5.

SPIRITUAL ONE (4) 1Co.2.15; 3.1; 14.37. Gal.6.1.

SPIRITUAL THINGS (6) Rom.15.27. 1Co.2.13,13; 9.11; 12.1; 14.1.

4153 PNEUMATIKOS (2): (adv.) in a spiritual manner.

SPIRITUALLY 1Co.2.14. Rev.11.8.

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