0630 APOLUO (66): apo = from + luo = to loose; to loose from, put away, release, dismiss. To dismiss or release a spouse, people in general, a prisoner, a slave, a person from an ailment or from life, or a personal offense. In God's First Century Message (FCM, NT) apoluo always refers to the action of one person with respect to others.
DISMISSAL OF A SPOUSE: Apoluo refers to the deliberate act of one spouse putting away, releasing or dismissing the other from their marriage. Further, God's Message specifies in Deu.24.1,3, Mt.5.31, 19.7 and Mk.10.4 that when a person dismisses his (or her) spouse, a "certificate of divorce" (0647 apostasion) is to be given to the other spouse. For example, Deu.24.1: "When a man takes a wife and marries her, and it happens that she finds no favor in his eyes because he has found some indecency in her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce and puts [it] in her hand and sends her out from his house..." Also Mt.5.31: "And it was said, ‘Whoever dismisses (apoluo) his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce (apostasion).'" Most civil governments require that a certificate of divorce be issued.
But in Mt.5.32, 19.9, Mk.10.11,12, and Lk.16.18 Jesus is teaching about dismissing a spouse, without reference to a certificate of divorce, as in Mt.5.32: "But I say to you+, ‘Everyone who is dismissing (apoluo) his wife, except for a matter of sexual immorality, makes her marriage broken (3429 moichaomai); and whoever marries a dismissed (apoluo)woman ends her [previous] marriage.'" Accordingly, "apoluo" should be translated "dismiss," not "divorce." In two of these contexts Jesus condemns the separation of husband and wife in a broader sense, stating in Mt.19.6 and Mk.10.9: "...whom God has yoked together, let no human separate (5563 chorizo)."
TO SEND AWAY, OR DISMISS PEOPLE IN GENERAL. For example Mk.8.8-9: "And they ate and were satisfied, and took up seven baskets of left over pieces. Now they were about four thousand. And he dismissed (apoluo) them."
TO RELEASE A PRISONER.
To release a prisoner in Mt.27.15: "Now at a feast the governor's custom was to release (apoluo) a prisoner, whomever the crowd wanted."
TO RELEASE A SLAVE.
To release a slave in Mt.18.27: "And the master of that slave, filled with compassion, released (apoluo) him and forgave him the loan."
TO RELEASE SOMEONE FROM A PHYSICAL AILMENT OR FROM LIFE.
To release from a physical ailment in Lk.13.12. "And seeing her, Jesus called and said to her, ‘Woman, you have been released (apoluo) from your ailment." To release from life in Lk.2.29: "Now, Master, release (apoluo) your slave in peace, according to your word."
TO RELEASE A PERSONAL OFFENSE OR OBLIGATION: To release from an offense in Lk.6.37: "Do not evaluate and you+ will surely not be evaluated. And do not condemn, and you+ will surely not be condemned. Release (apoluo), and you+ will be released (apoluo)."
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