5407 PHONEUO (12): to murder. A killing is called murder in God's FCM (NT) when it is a violation of God's law as expressed therein or in his AM (OT), when it is a killing of one of God's spokespersons, or when it is a violation of civil law. See 5406 phoneus (below). See also"kill" (0615 apokteino) and "destroy" (0622 apollumi ).
For example Mk.10.19, quoting the seventh commandment from the AM: "You know the commandments: 'Do not commit sexual immorality', 'Do not murder' (phoneuo), 'Do not steal', 'Do not testify falsely', 'Do not defraud', 'Honor your father and mother.'"
Also, Mt.23.35: "...so all the upright blood being shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the upright one, until the blood of Zechariah, son of Berechiah, whom you+ murdered (phoneuo) between the inner temple and the altar." (ref. 2Chr.24.21).
5406 PHONEUS (7): a murderer; as in Mt.22.6-7: "...and the others, seizing his slaves, insulted and killed (apokteino) [them]. So the king became furious, and sending his armies, destroyed (apollumi) those murderers and burned their city." Note that because those who killed (apokteino) violated the rules of the lawful civil ruler, the king, these killers were called murderers (phoneus) and thus were justifiably destroyed (apollumi ).
Also, Act.3.14: "But you+ denied the pure and upright one and asked [that] a man, a murderer (phoneus) be given to you+ as a favor." This is a reference to Barabbas, who had lawfully been condemned to death. See 5488 phonos below.
5408 PHONOS (9): deliberate unlawful killing, murder of a human. In Mk.15.7, the usage of the word phonos shows that it means "murder" because it involves "killing" in a rebellion against established governmental authority: "Now there was the one arrested with the rebel named Barabbas, who had committed murder during the rebellion." Similarly in Lk.23.19 and 25.
Additional reasons why phonos and the other "phon-" words refer to murder are that in the FCM (NT) they always apply to humans, never to animals, and they are never used figuratively.
That phonos means murder can also be seen in Mt.15.19, where it is listed with others of the ten commandments: "For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, sexual immoralities, thefts, false testimonies, contemptuous speech." Similarly in Mk.7.21 and Rom.1.29.
Back to word index