5457 PHOS (71): illumination, or light which is perceived either with the senses or spiritually. See these additional word-studies at the end: "light" (5338 phengos) and "lamp" (3088 luchnos).

LITERAL LIGHT; illumination provided by sunlight, burning, incandescence or other source; or sources of light, such as lamps.

Recommended Translation:

LIGHT (11): Mt.17.2. Lk.8.16; 22.56. Jn.11.9. Act.9.3; 12.7; 16.29; 22.6,9,11; 26.13.

FIGURATIVELY, GOD OR JESUS THE ANOINTED ONE, OR THEIR WORDS AS THE SOURCE OF LIGHT which can enlighten the minds of humans concerning God's will. Eighteen times in the FCM (NT) God's light is contrasted to spiritual "darkness" (4655 skotos ): Mt.4.16, 11.35, Jn.1.5, 3.19, 8.12, 11.10, 12.35, 12.46, Act.26.18, Rom.2.19, 13.12, 2Co.4.6, 6.14, 1Th.5.5, 1Pe.2.9, 1Jn.1.5 and 2.8,9. For example, Jn.3.19: "And this is the condemnation: the light has come into the human world and the humans loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil." There is a wealth of God's wisdom to be found in these comparisons of good and evil.

LIGHT (50): Mt.4.16,16; 6.23; Lk.2.32; 16.8. Jn.1.4,5,7,8,8,9; 3.19, 19,20,20,21; 5.35; 8.12,12; 9.5; 11.10; 12.35,35,36,36,36,46. Act.26.18,23. Rom.13.12. 2Co.4.6; 6.14; 11.14. Eph.5.8b,13,14. Col.1.12. 1Th.5.5. 1Ti.6.16. Jas.1.17. 1Pe.2.9. 1Jn.1.5,7,7; 2.8,9,10. Rev.18.23; 21.24; 22.5.

FIGURATIVE LIGHT WHICH IS RADIATED BY THE GOOD WORKS OF HUMANS, who are living according to God's will (Mt.5.16); or, the humans through whom this light is radiated.

LIGHT (7): Mt.5.14,16. Lk.11.35. Act.13.47. Rom.2.19. Eph.5.8a,9.

FIGURATIVELY, OUT IN THE OPEN, NOT HIDDEN; to speak something openly:

LIGHT (2): Mt.10.27. Lk.12.3


FIRE (1): Mk.14.54.

5459 PHOSPHOROS (1): phos = light + phero = to bring; to bring light, that which brings light, in reference to the planet Venus (the morning star) which was called the day star by the ancients.


5458 PHOSTER (2): A source of light; illumination, luminary or light-giver. Illumination in the new Jerusalem in Rev.21.22. God's people are to be "...blameless and harmless, children of God, faultless amid a crooked and perverted generation, among whom you+ shine (5316 phaino) as light-sources (phoster) in the world of humans" (Php.2.15).

LIGHT-SOURCE Php.2.15; Rev.21.11.

5460 PHOTEINOS (5): an adjective meaning bright, light-giving. Always refers to reflected light in the FCM (NT): literal light reflecte from a cloud in Mt.17.5; God's spiritual light reflected by his people in the other four passages. Opposite to "dark" (4652 skoteinos ).

BRIGHT Mt.6.22; 17.5. Lk.11.34,36,36.

5462 PHOTISMOS (2): light, illumination. Spiritual enlightenment in the FCM.


5461 PHOTIZO (11): to provide light, illuminate, lighten, enlighten.

TO LITERALLY ILLUMINATE SOMEONE (LK.11.36); or, figuratively, to shed light on something so as to explain it.

ILLUMINATE (7) Lk.11.36. 1Co.4.5. Eph.3.9. 2Ti.1.10. Rev.18.1; 21.23; 22.5.

TO SPIRITUALLY ENLIGHTEN SOMEONE; as in Heb.10.32, "But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after you+ were enlightened, you+endured a great struggle of sufferings."

ENLIGHTEN (4) Jn.1.9. Eph.1.18. Heb.6.4; 10.32.

5438 PHENGOS (3) light. Moonlight in Mt.24.29 and Mark.13.24. Lamp light in Lk.11.33. Thus, phengos does not refer to daylight or sunlight in the FCM, as can phos (5457). In Lk.11.33 lamp light (phengos) is contrasted to the light (phos) of human good works in verse 35.

LIGHT Mt.24.29. Mk.13.24. Lk.11.33.

3088 LUCHNOS (14) a source of light such as a candle or lamp; used both literally and figuratively. Mt.5.15 defines luchnos as being something that must be lit and that shines of radiates (lampas) light (phos). In Lk.11.33 luchnos is something placed upon a luchnia, evidently a lampstand. Luchnos apparently differs from a lamp (lampas) in that lampas seems to be an outdoor lamp or lantern, whereas luchnos is used indoors.


LAMP (9) Mt.5.15. Mk.4.21. Lk.8.16; 11.33; 12.35; 15.8. 2Pe.1.19. Rev.18.23; 22.5.


LAMP (5) Mt.6.22. Lk.11.34,36. Jn.5.35. Rev.21.23.


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