3770 OURANIOS (9): pertaining to heaven, heavenly. In God's FCM (NT) it always describes a spiritual being or thing. Every time it is used in Matthew, it describes the Father as being "heavenly." For example Mt.5.48: "So then, you+ are to be perfect, as your+ heavenly Father is perfect." In Luke it describes an angel, in Acts a vision. Comp. "heavenly" (2032 epouranios ).

HEAVENLY Mt.5.48; 6.14,26,32; 15.13; 18.35; 23.9. Lk.2.13. Act.26.19.

3772 OURANOS (272): heaven. There are four different regions that are called "heaven" in the FCM:

1) The air or sky above the physical earth,
2) The spiritual region in which God dwells,
3) The spiritual region of evil spirits, and
4) A third heaven.

An additional spiritual region exists where the spirits of deceased humans reside. It is called the resting place or "unseen place" (0086 hades ). This region is never called heaven (ouranos) in the FCM.

When the definite article ("the") precedes ouranos in the Greek text, it usually should also be used in English; if omitted in Greek, it should also be omitted in English. When ouranos is singular, the context usually reveals which heaven is meant; but when plural, it may not always be clear just which heavens are meant. Comp. "heavenly" (3770 ouranios and 2032 epouranios ).


1) THE PHYSICAL REGION ABOVE EARTH: Ouranos this is the region which humans can experience with their five senses. It includes the sky or air with its weather phenomena and birds in flight, the literal stars, planets, moon, etc. For example Mt.8.20: "The foxes have burrows and the birds of the air (ouranos) [have] nests, but the Son of Humanity has no place to lay down [his] head." This region is often contrasted to "earth" (1093 ge) in the text:

HEAVEN (52) Mt.5.18; 14.19; 24.30,30,35; 26.64. Mk.6.41; 7.34; 13.27, 31; 14.62. Lk.9.16,54; 16.17; 17.29; 18.13; 21.11,33. Jn.6.31,32a; 17.1. Act.1.10,11a; 2.2,5,19; 4.12,24; 7.49; 9.3; 10.11,16; 11.5,10; 14.15; 17.24; 22.6. Col.1.23. Heb.12.26. Jas.5.18. Rev.5.13; 10.5,6; 11.6; 12.1,3; 13.13; 14.7; 16.21; 20.9; 21.1,1. AIR (9) Mt.6.26; 8.20; 13.32. Mk.4.32; Lk.8.5; 9.58; 13.19. Act.10.12; 11.6. SKY (8) Mt.16.2,3,3. Lk.4.25; 12.56; 17.24,24. Heb.11.12.

2) THE SPIRITUAL HEAVEN WHERE GOD, JESUS AND THE ANGELS DWELL: Jesus location, as in Jn.6.38: "...I (Jesus) have come down from heaven (ouranos), not so that I could do my [own] desire, but the desire of the [one] sending me." And the place to which Jesus returned, Mk.16.19: "So then after speaking to them, the Master Jesus was taken up into heaven and sat at God's right hand." Also Mt.22.30: "...they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as messengers (angels) in heaven."

HEAVEN (101) Mt.5.34; 6.10,20; 11.23,25; 16.1; 18.18,18; 21.25,25; 22.30; 23.22; 28.2,18. Mk.8.11; 10.21; 11.30,31; 13.32; 16.19. Lk.2.15; 3.21,22; 6.23; 10.18,21; 11.13,16; 15.7,18,21; 19.38; 20.4,5; 22.43. Jn.1.32,51; 3.13,13,27,31; 6.32b,33,38,41,42,50,51,58; 12.28. Act.1.11b,11c; 3.21; 7.55; 11.9. Rom.1.18; 10.6. 1Co.8.5; 15.47. 2Co.5.2. Gal.1.8. Col.4.1. 1Th.4.16. 2Th.1.7. Heb.9.24. Jas.5.12. 1Pe.1.12; 3.22. 2Pe.1.18. Rev.3.12; 4.1,2; 5.3; 8.1; 10.1,4,8; 11.12, 12,13,15,19; 12.7,8,10; 14.2,13,17; 15.1,5; 16.11; 18.1,4,5,20; 19.1, 11,14; 20.1; 21.2,10.

3) THE HEAVEN OF EVIL SPIRITS AND THE UPPER POLITICAL REALM: that is, the spiritual realm of rulers, other powerful humans and governments that are influenced or controlled by Satan (Eph.6.11-18). The literal Nestle-Marshall translation of Eph.6.12 states: "...our conflict is not against blood and flesh, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual [armies] of evil in the heavenlies (epouranios )." "Heavenlies" or "heavenly places" (2032 epouranios), is an emphasized form of ouranos.

That our "conflict is not against blood and flesh" (i.e., living humans) shows that this "conflict" is not physical, but spiritual, and includes the spirits of human rulers and authorities such as those of Rom.13.1. "World rulers of darkness" and "spiritual [armies] of evil" includes Satan, his demonic hierarchy and the evil humans under his control.

Satan is called "the ruler (prince) of this world" (Mt.9.34), "the ruler (prince) of the demons" (Jn.12.31), and "the ruler (prince) of the authority of the air" (Eph.2.2). These passages show the level of his authority over demons and over those human rulers who submit to him. Thus Eph.6.12 includes humans who are in a voluntary cooperating relationship with Satan and his demons, or who are perhaps demon- possessed. See also "Satan" (4567 satanas), "Devil, enemy" (1228 diabolos) and "demon" (1140 daimonion ).

In Act.7.42, concerning those who sacrificed unto the calf-idol, God "delivered them to offer godly service to the army of heaven." The "army of heaven" here is not God's army. Nor is the godly service (worship) offered to God, but to the "spiritual [armies] of evil in the heavenly places," Eph.6.12.

This can also be seen in Mt.24.29 and Mk.13.25, both of which state that "...the stars will fall out of heaven (ouranos and the powers in the heavens will be shaken." This does not refer to a literal heaven with literal stars falling out of the sky, nor can the "powers in the heavens" refer to God or his angels. Rev.6.13 states, "And the stars of heaven fell to the earth..."Literal stars are much too large to fall to the earth. These figurative stars evidently refer to powerful authorities and humans high up in the political realm, in the same sense as movie stars are high up in the entertainment realm.

Conclusion: Some rulers and authorities in the political realm are spiritually controlled by Satan and his demons. Christians are to use the "whole armor of God" (the defenses described in Eph.6.11-18) to defend themselves against such evil humans and spirits. The only offensive weapon authorized is "the sword of the Spirit, which is the message of God."

HEAVEN (11) Mt.24.29a. Mk.13.25a. Lk.10.15. Act.7.42. Rev.6.13,14; 8.10; 9.1;12.4; 13.6; 20.11.

4) A THIRD HEAVEN: In 2Co.12.2-4 Paul refers to a "third heaven" in context with a place called "paradise" in verse 4, indicating that "paradise" and "third heaven" refer to the same place. See "paradise" (3857 (paradeisos ) for discussion.

HEAVEN (1) 2Co.12.2.


At least two of the above kinds of heaven are under consideration in Mt.3.16: "And having been immersed Jesus immediately rose up from the water. And Look! The heavens (ouranoi) were opened up, and he saw God's Spirit coming down as a dove, coming upon him." Evidently both the physical air and God's dwelling place are included; similarly in verse 17: "And Look! A voice out of the heavens (ouranoi) saying 'This one is my precious Son, in whom I am delighted." In 2Pe.3.10 "heavens" refers to the air or sky plus Satan's evil realm(s): "...in which the heavens (ouranoi) will pass away with a rushing sound, and the burning elements will be dissolved, and the earth (1093 ge) and the works in it will be uncovered."

In Col.1.16 all four heavens are included: "...in him (Jesus), all things in the heavens (ouranoi) and on the earth were created, the visible and the invisible, whether thrones or lordships or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him." This includes Satan's "heaven" of evil; however, note that Satan, his demons and humans he dominates were not created evil but of their own free will chose evil rather than good.

Matthew always refers to the reign of God as the "reign (0932 basileia ) of the heavens (ouranoi)." The idea seems to be that God is in ultimate control of all "heavens."

HEAVENS (90) Mt.3.2,16,17; 4.17; 5.3,10,12,16,19,19,20,45; 6.1,9; 7.11,21,21; 8.11; 10.7,32,33; 11.11,12; 12.50; 13.11,24,31,33,44,45, 47,52; 16.17,19,19,19; 18.1,3,4,10,10,14,19,23; 19.12,14,21,23; 20.1; 22.2; 23.13; 24.29b,31,36; 25.1. Mk.1.10,11; 11.25; 12.25; 13.25b. Lk.10.20; 12.33; 18.22; 21.26. Act.2.34;7.56. 2Co.5.1. Eph.1.10; 3.15; 4.10; 6.9. Php.3.20. Col.1.5,16,20. 1Th.1.10. Heb.1:10; 4.14; 7.26; 8.1; 9.23; 12.23,25. 1Pe.1.4. 2Pe.3.5,7,10,12,13. Rev.12.12.

3771 OURANOTHEN (2): ouranos = heaven + hothen = from; from heaven.

FROM HEAVEN Act.14.17; 26.13.


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