0622 APOLLUMI (90): apo = away or from + ollumi = to ruin, undo, lose utility; to totally remove something to eliminate its purpose or usefulness; that is, to destroy it. In God's FCM (NT), Apollumi may represent either an action taken to "DESTROY" something, for something or someone to "PERISH" or the effect upon that which is destroyed to "BE LOST."
When referring to a human, apollumi usually refers to the destroying of a "soul" (psuche) or "spirit" (pneuma). See "soul" (5590 psuche) for the meaning of these words. In some passages apollumi means an intention or action to destroy something or someone totally.
FOR A HUMAN SOUL (OR SPIRIT) TO BE DESTROYED, PERISH OR BE LOST: that is, the physical part of a human is not under consideration.
FOR A HUMAN SOUL (OR SPIRIT) TO BE DESTROYED: Mt.10.28: "And do not be afraid of those who are killing (apokteino) the body, but are not able to kill (apokteino) the soul; but instead have awesome respect for the one able to destroy (apollumi) both soul (psuche) and body (soma) in the burning dump (ge'enna)." One human may physically kill another, but he cannot kill the part that is non-physical, the soul or spirit. See "soul," (psuche) for discussion. Only God can destroy (apollumi) the soul. So, for a human, to be apollumi is infinitely more serious than to be physically killed (apokteino).
God does not destroy the soul of any human until after he has been evaluated (judged), according to Rev.20.11-15: "And I saw a great white throne and the one sitting on it from whose presence the earth and the heaven fled, and a place was not found for them. And I saw the dead (nekros), the great and the small, standing before the throne, and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life, and the dead (nekros) were evaluated by the things written in the books according to their works (ergon). And the sea gave up the dead (nekros) in it, and death (thanatos) and the unseen place (hades) gave up the dead (nekros) in them, and they were evaluated, each one, according to their works (ergon) and death (thanatos) and the unseen place (hades) were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death (thanatos), the lake of fire. And if anyone was not found written in the book of life he was thrown into the lake of fire."
Since there is a "second death" there is necessarily also a "first death, as mentioned in Heb.9.27: "...it is reserved to humans to die once, and after this, judgment." The first death precedes "judgment" and the second death occurs after "judgment." So, in Mt.10.28 (above), "killing the body" (apokteino) and "destroying the soul" (apollumi) refer to the first and second deaths respectively.
The distinction between apokteino and apollumi is also apparent in Mt.21.39-41, Mk.12.7-9 and Lk.20.14-16. In each of these passages Jesus states in his comparison that the son of the vineyard owner was "killed" (apokteino), and adds that the slayers would be "destroyed" (apollumi, worse than physically "killed"). For example Mk.12.7-9: "...And those farmers said to themselves, 'This one is the heir; come, let us kill (apokteino) him and the inheritance will be ours.' And taking [him] they killed (apokteino) him and threw him outside the vineyard. What will the master of the vineyard do? He will come and will destroy (apollumi) the farmers and will give the vineyard to others."
In each of these passages "save" or "rescue" (sozo) is the opposite of "destroy", "perish" or "be lost" (apollumi): Mk.8.35,35, Lk.6.9, 9.24,24, 19.10, Jn.3.16-17, 1Co.1.18, 2Co.2.15, 2Th.2.10, Jas.4.12 and Jud.5. For example, in Jn.3.16-17 a human who is not "saved" will "perish": "For thus God lovingly cared for the world of humans: he gave [his] only-born Son; so that everyone who is trusting in him will not perish (apollumi) but will have eternal life. For God did not send out [his] Son into the world of humans so that he could condemn the world, but so that the world of humans could be rescued (sozo) through him."
FOR A HUMAN SOUL (OR SPIRIT) TO PERISH:
For example, 1Co.1.18: "For the message of the cross, on the one hand is folly to those who are perishing (apollumi), on the other it is the power of God to us who are being rescued (sozo)." Also 2Pe.3.9: "The Master is not slow [in his] promise as some consider slowness, but is patient toward you+, not wanting anyone to perish (apollumi) but everyone to come to a change of heart." Thus, the person who does not come to a change of heart (repentance) will perish.
FOR A HUMAN SOUL (OR SPIRIT) TO BE LOST:
Mt.15.24: "But answering, he (Jesus) said, 'I was not sent except to the lost (apollumi) sheep of the house of Israel.'" Also Lk.15.23-24: "...bring the fattened calf, kill [it]; and let us eat and be merry, because this my son was dead and lives again. [He] was lost (apollumi) and was found. And they began to be merry." Also Jn.18.8-9: "Jesus answered, 'I told you+ that I am [he]; so then, if you+ seek me, allow these to go;' that the statement might be fulfilled which he said, 'Of [those] whom you have given me, I lost (apollumi) no one.'"
FOR A COMPLETE HUMAN LIFE TO BE DESTROYED, PERISH OR BE LOST: that is, the physical part of a human plus the soul and spirit, a complete person.
FOR ALL THAT MAKES UP A COMPLETE HUMAN TO BE DESTROYED: For example, Lk.19.47: "And he was teaching daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the scribes and the prominent ones of the people sought to destroy (apollumi) him."
FOR A COMPLETE HUMAN TO PERISH OR LOSE HIS LIFE:
For example, Lk.8.25-26: "And approaching [him] they awaken him saying, 'Master, rescue [us], we are perishing (apollumi).' And being awakened, he rebuked the wind and the water, and they stopped, and it became calm." Also Lk.17.33: "Whoever seeks to retain his life will lose (apollumi) it; and whoever loses (apollumi) [his life] will retain it."
In this usage, apollumi is contrasted to "die" (0599 apothnesko), as in Jn.11.50: "...it is beneficial for us that one man should die (apothnesko) for the people and not the whole nation perish (apollumi)."
OTHER USAGES OF APOLLUMI IN THE FCM:
TO DESTROY A DEMON:
For example Lk.4.33-34: "And in the synagogue there was a person having a spirit of an unclean demon, and he shouted with a loud voice, 'Ah, what [is this] to us and to you, Jesus Nazarene? Did you come to destroy us? I know who you are: the pure one of God.'"
TO LOSE PART OF ONE'S PHYSICAL BODY:
TO DESTROY SOMETHING OTHER THAN A HUMAN, OR FOR IT TO PERISH OR BE LOST: such as, wine, wineskins, works, reward, sheep, a coin, crumbs, food, wisdom and the human world.
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