4652 SKOTEINOS (3): adjective; dark. In the FCM (NT) skoteinos describes that which is evil (poneros) in a person. It is the opposite of "bright" (5460 photeinos) in all passages. For example, Lk.11.34-36, "... The lamp of the body is the eye. When your eye is single, your whole body is bright (photeinos). But when it is evil (poneros), your body is also dark (skoteinos). So then, beware, lest the light in you is darkness (skotos). So then, if your whole body is bright (photeinos), not having any part dark (skoteinos), the whole will be bright (photeinos), as when the shining of the lamp illuminates (photizo ) you."
4653 SKOTIA (16): darkness, the opposite of "light" (5457 phos ). Synonym, 4655 skotos. Skotia is used almost exclusively by John. But John uses skotia in 1Jn.1.5 and skotos in v.6, but there is insufficient context to discern a difference in meaning between the two words.
But John does clearly contrast the two different" walks" or relationships (koinwnia) human can have with regard to God in verses 6 and 7: "If we say that we have a relationship with him and walk in the darkness, we lie, and are not doing the truth. But if we walk in the light as he is in the light, we have a relationship with each other, and the blood of Jesus the Anointed one, his Son, is cleansing us from all sin."
FIGURATIVE DARKNESS, usually darkness in the spiritual sense; always contrasted to light in the FCM.
LITERAL DARKNESS, night-time.
4654 SKOTIZOMAI (7): to figuratively darken something, as in Mt.24.29: "And immediately after the hardship of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give her light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken."
4656 SKOTOOMAI (1): to darken; (a different verb-form than skotizomi).
4655 SKOTOS (32): darkness, the opposite of "light" (5457 phos ). The absence of either literal or spiritual light, as determined by the text and context. Synonym: 4653 skotia.
SPIRITUAL DARKNESS; In Acts 26.18, Paul recalls the duties to which Jesus had appointed him: "...to open their (the nations) eyes, to turn [them] from darkness (skotos) to light (phos ) and [from] the authority of Satan to God; that they may receive forgiveness of wrongdoings and an inheritance among those having been purified by trust in me (Jesus)." Note that Jesus left no in-between; humans were in darkness until they turned to light; no partial light and no partial darkness; that is, "No man can serve two masters."
In 2Co.6.14 Paul asked the rhetorical question, "...what relationship does light have with darkness?" And in Eph.5.8, "For then you+ were in darkness, but now in light in the Master. Walk as children of light."
Darkness is the opposite of spiritual light in Mt.4.16, Lk.1.79, 11.35, Jn.3.19, Act.26.18, Rom.2.19, 13.12, 1Co.4.5, 2Co.6.14, Eph.5.8, 1Th.5.4,5 and 1Pe.2.9. Darkness is associated with death in Mt.4.16 and Lk.1.79.
Darkness is associated with evil in Mt.6.23, Jn.3.19, Act.26.18, Rom.13.12, Eph.5.11 and 6.12. For example, Eph.6.12: "...our conflict is not against blood and flesh, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the world rulers of this darkness (Skotos), against the evil (poneros) spiritual ones in the heavenlies."
ABSENCE OF LIGHT; literally, or possibly figuratively. Darkness is the opposite of light in Act.2.20. "Outer darkness" is a place that not only has no light, but is a great distance from any light in Mt.8.12; 22.13; 25.30.
Summary: darkness (skotos) is associated with death, evil and Satan. It is the opposite of spiritual life and salvation.
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